After the research process done, it has confirmed the validity of the city and housing as a useful tool to analyze a historical moment and the development of a society; the issue of housing and dwelling as a basic need of the human being and cities, it has been particularly open to cross and interdisciplinary work.
As an initial methodological basis, a critique of ethnocentric thinking was first considered and the definition of a single model of development for the societies. This hypothesis has been proven by finding documents describing the difficulties of everyday life in the city and in housing in the colonial Morocco. Although the model proposed for urban development of rational city was appropriate, it showed deficiencies in adapting to economic and political system existing in that period and in the ways of living for the local population. This disagreement was expressed both citywide and in terms of housing.
[MUCHADA] In comparison with the French colonial model, the weakness of the Spanish system itself, and the construction of its political and colonial ideology, was always closer to the Moroccan future than the French proposals. The scale of operations and the rate of modernization were more slowly in the north and that allowed that the management and the evolution of the cultural changes and modes of proceeding may be appropriate for the local action.
Defending a model or an ideal of modernity and progress met in the colonial context with the distance between the theoretical world and reality. The radical nature of the context, helped to reveal the reluctances to change and the weaknesses of the system itself idealized, taking place also in the European territory.
In terms of the specific assumptions, the importance of the complex and interdisciplinary approach to the understanding of the urban phenomenon and the issue of housing were noted. Everything is linked: the politics, the economics and social; the geography, the architecture, the sociology, the political sciences, etc. The reality is one that flows into the present. Often one tend to draw conclusions from unilateral approaches, single-discipline. However, the opportunity to understand and analyze the phenomena in their entirety is loosen.
In this study, both through the methodology and the interest in the various content, there has been the purpose to keep the eyes open and alert to other fields related to architecture and urbanism. At all times, the historical context of work were analyzed: the sociopolitical situation in Morocco, pre-colonial; the factors that influenced in the development of the colonial project, issues of power and political and social struggles, the approach to economic and urban development plans.
The change that Morocco suffered in forty-five years of colonization was very marked at all levels: education, health, economics and urban population. As the title of the project mentions, it was a challenge for the Moroccan population which had to break their traditional structures and invent new ones in little time.
With regard to housing as a need of society, it has been described briefly the situation that appeared in the cities, linked to the migration process: the creation of shanty towns and shacks, the emergence of epidemics in the early years, the access by the population to the new water services, electricity, health care, schooling. The peripheries of the cities were the scene of the cultural and civilization clash.
In general, studies have shown that housing was not a priority need, either for the population, which they have not demanded nor in the administration, who used it more as a political symbol than as an integral action for guarantee rights. Consulted municipal records showed that even in recent years, discussions revolved around projects of water supply and electricity. This situation caused that most public housing projects were made out of management and outside politic decisions in an urbanism of urgency, facing epidemics, or an electoral intent.
On the other hand, in the center of the reflections, was the culture, and in this case, the culture of living. The search for rational minimum dwelling, in respect to the way of living, was one of the focal points of attention for housing production. In fact, looking at the suburbs of Larache, it was clear that there really was a tension, a provocation for changing these families from truly rural environment, without communication, without electricity, without school.
Also raised in the analysis, housing projects carried out in the periphery were considered, but modest projects whose promoters were Moroccans, Tetouans, with its small share of power, they decided together with a technician their home. These projects, mostly anonymous, and no patrimonial value, theoretically, have been dealing in this research, as they reflected the sentiments of the local culture, their way of thinking about housing, and to interpret modernity.
The official public housing projects, conducted by renowned architects, were mostly cutting-edge examples of reflection, with an equity value today, but in their interpretations, away from the needs of the inhabitants. This aspect is currently represented by the degree of transformation that housing had experienced. In addition, often came to the minimum area, e.g. 30-40 m2, so houses tended to grow where they could.
In relation to housing policies and municipal management, several unpublished documents such as reports of local architects or municipal records have been reviewed in the investigation. The original documentation has been of a great interest because it contradicted the official publications made by the regime and pointed out the difficulties of everyday life. The hypotheses raised from the planning were not met. The plans, without strong management and promotion tools, they could not take place. This resulted in the plane of reality in a strong development of the peripheries and in various processes of self-management of access to housing, both through legal and illegal means, as the images of the settlements showed.
In terms of planning, the issue of housing was an issue inherent to the concept of city. The way of conceiving the city, its growth and its types defined the basis for ensuring the achievement of housing. In the studies, the analysis of the widening of Larache and Tetouan were showed together with the description of its evolution, where the speculative process left them empty during the first decades and inaccessible to large segments of the population.
Finally, it appeared as the last link of the zooms of understanding, the home itself. As mentioned, housing was not a primary need nor made a policy itself. However, all projects that were implemented by the Administration to address the weaknesses of the system set up an interesting asset, such as accumulation of experience in the promotions and the design of public housing of minimum dimensions and costs.
In the specificity of the domestic space, the design of spaces, its composition, the relevance of the common and meeting spaces, the proposed typology, the concept of evolutionary architecture, there were many factors that had its share of influence in the good life and in the search of the right to housing and the city.
Taken together, both in the present research project as in the historical reckoning studied, there was a perpetual longing, a inherent search to the motivation from the technicians and the citizen action. This could be called as the invented city, the urban from that needed and needs the social contract of the modern Moroccan society.